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Elements of powerful teaching

Twelve principles of effective teaching have emerged from research in classrooms. They address generic aspects of curriculum, instruction and assessment, as well as classroom organization and management practices that support effective instruction. They focus on learning outcomes but with the recognition of the need for a supportive classroom climate and positive student attitudes toward schooling, teachers and classmates.

Much of the research support for these principles comes from studies of relationships between classroom processes (measured through observation systems) and student outcomes (most notably gains in standardized achievement tests). Some principles, however, are rooted in the logic of instructional design (e.g., the need for alignment among a curriculum’s goals, content, instructional methods and assessment measures). In addition, attention was paid to emergent theories of teaching and learning (e.g., sociocultural, social constructivist) and to the standards statements circulated by organizations representing the major school subjects. Priority was given to principles that have been shown to be applicable under ordinary classroom conditions and associated with progress toward desired student outcomes. (Brophy, J. Teaching. at the International Bureau of Education.)

Tool: Elements of powerful teaching observation tool