Class tasks should be meaningful, challenging
and authentic to life outside school.
Students should be given optimal choices
and optimal challenges.
Evaluation should be not comparative and competitive
but improvement-based. Mistakes should be treated as positives.
Classroom management should include careful use of time and norms
The teacher should verbalize and model scientific
thinking, scientific dispositions, and coping strategies.
The teacher should scaffold cognition, motivation and
The classroom community should be committed to understanding.
Mastery learning goals vs. performance
goals (grades, beating others) vs. focus on the self.
Learning goals: avoiding closure vs. seeking
closure; best answer vs. any answer.
Personal interest--general attitude or preference--in
a subject matter.
Perceived utility value ( exchange value)
of a subject matter.
Importance of the
subject matter to the learner relative to self-schema.
Self-efficacy beliefs about one's capabilities
for tasks in specific domains.
Control beliefs: I can do this; If I do
this, I will accomplish that; I can learn and get good grades.
Selective attention, e.g., to become dissatisfied
with one's idea one must attend to the discrepant information.
Activation of prior knowledge.
Deeper processing, e.g., elaboration, paraphrasing,
summarizing, organization, concept mapping, networking.
Problem finding and solving.
Metacognitive evaluation and control, e.g.,
comparing one's current idea and an alternative idea.
Volitional control and regulation (persistence).
Dissatisfaction with one's current conception
of a matter (shown problems it doesnt' solve).
Intelligibility to the learner of an alternative
conception of the same matter; learner's ability to represent the alternative.
Plausibility to the learner of an alternative
conception of the same matter; it seems to fit their current ecology of
Learner's estimate of the fruitfulness of
an alternative conception of the same matter; it opens to something interesting and
For example, conception of pupils as diverse
constructors of meaning, as distinct from containers for receiving information.
For example, a conception of organisms as
randomly varying and naturally selected, as distinct from designed.