Class tasks, projects: meaningful, challenging,
authentic to life outside school/college.
Authority relationships: optimal choice
and optimal challenge (novelty, difficulty, surprise).
Evaluation: not comparative and competitive,
but improvement-based, mistakes treated as positive
Classroom management: use of time; norms
Teacher verbalization and modeling of scientific
thinking, scientific dispositions, coping, strategies.
Teacher scaffolding of cognition, motivation,
Classroom community committed to understanding
Mastery (learning) goals vs. performance
goals (grades, beating others) vs. focus on the self.
Epistemic goals: avoiding closure vs. seeking
closure; best answer vs. any answer.
Personal interest--general attitude or preference--in
a subject matter.
Perceived utility value, exchange value,
of a subject matter
Importance, salience, significance of the
subject matter to the learner, relative to self-schema.
Self-efficacy beliefs, about one's capabilities
for tasks in specific domains.
Control beliefs: I can do this; If I do
this, I will accomplish that; I can learn and get good grades.
Selective attention, e.g., to become dissatisfied
with one's idea, one must attend to the discrepant information.
Activation of prior knowledge
Deeper processing, e.g. elaboration, paraphrasing,
summarizing; organization, concept mapping, networking.
Problem finding and solving
Metacognitive evaluation and control, e.g.,
comparing one's current idea and an alternative idea.
Volitional control and regulation, e.g.
Dissatisfaction with one's current conception
of a matter: shows problems it doesnt' solve.
Intelligibility to the learner of an alternative
conception of the same matter; learner's ability to represent the alternative.
Plausibility to the learner of an alternative
conception of the same matter; it seems to fit their current ecology of
Learner's estimate of the fruitfulness of
an alternative conception of the same matter; it opens to something interesting,
For example, conception of pupils as diverse
constructors of meaning, as distinct from containers for receiving information.
For example, a conception of organisms as
randomly varying and naturally selected, as distinct from designed, and
from enacting their essence, and from striving for the form in which we
now see them.